Functionality & Background Knowledge
When we apply heat energy to it, its molecules begin to expand: a great deal of heat is absorbed during this process owing to water’s specific heat capacity - approximately 4.2kJ/(kg.K). Next, the small droplets of water start to evaporate. And so the intake air charge is cooled still further (up to 60°C and more).
Finally, when the remaining water droplets and water vapour reach the combustion chamber, steam is produced. When the water changes from the liquid to gas state, large amount of heat energy is consumed in sustaining the process. The latent heat of evaporation is 2256kJ/kg, approx. six times more than gasoline.
This chemical process acts as an anti-detonant and also keeps the interior of the engine very clean, so preventing the build-up of carbon “hot spots”. So water is the perfect liquid for regulating excess heat under certain engine-operating conditions and you´ll cool down your EGT, the valves, pistons and turbocharger!